RHEUMATIC AND MUSCULOSKELETAL DISEASES
Rheumatoid arthritis is an autoimmune disease that results in a chronic, systemic inflammatory disorder that may affect many tissues and organs, but principally attacks flexible (synovial) joints. It can be a disabling and painful condition, which can lead to substantial loss of functioning and mobility if not adequately treated.
The process involves an inflammatory response of the capsule around the joints (synovium) secondary to swelling (turgescence) of synovial cells, excess synovial fluid, and the development of fibrous tissue (pannus) in the synovium. The pathology of the disease process often leads to the destruction of articular cartilage and ankylosis (fusion) of the joints.
Onset is uncommon under the age of 15 and from then on the incidence rises with age until the age of 80. Women are affected three to five times as often as men.
Ankylosing spondylitis (AS) is a chronic inflammatory disease of the axial skeleton, with variable involvement of peripheral joints and non-articular structures. AS is a member of the group of the spondyloarthropathies, with a strong genetic predisposition. It mainly affects joints in the spine and the sacroiliac joint in the pelvis, and can cause eventual fusion of the spine. Complete fusion results in a complete rigidity of the spine, a condition known as "bamboo spine". It usually begins in the second or third decade of life and has male preponderance.
The etiology of AS is unknown, but a combination of genetic and environmental factors work together to produce the clinical disease.
The outcome in patients with AS is generally good compared to that in patients with a disease such as rheumatoid arthritis.
Osteoarthritis, more commonly known as arthrosis, is the most common form of arthritis and affects millions of people around the world. Often called wear-and-tear arthritis, osteoarthritis occurs when the protective cartilage on the ends of bones wears down over time.
While osteoarthritis can damage any joint in the human body, the disorder most commonly affects joints in the hands, neck, lower back, knees and hips.
Osteoarthritis gradually worsens with time, and no cure exists. However, osteoarthritis treatments can slow the progression of the disease, relieve pain and improve joint function.
Brexin (Piroxicam β-cyclodextrin) is a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug indicated for the symptomatic treatment of painful and inflammatory conditions in patients suffering from rheumatoid arthritis, ankylosing spondylitis and osteoarthritis, with a once-daily posology.
Cardiovascular diseases (CVD) are the number one cause of death globally: more people die annually from CVDs than from any other cause.
CVD refers to any disease that affects the cardiovascular system, principally cardiac disease, vascular diseases of the brain and kidney, and peripheral arterial disease. The causes of CVD are diverse but atherosclerosis and/or hypertension are the most common. In addition, with ageing come a number of physiological and morphological changes that alter cardiovascular function and lead to an increased risk of CVD, even in healthy asymptomatic individuals.
In the fight for the prevention of CVDs, the strongest effort focusses on the treatment of hypertension, as it is one of the biggest cardiovascular risk factors. As a matter of fact, it substantially increases the probability of cardio-, cerebral- , and reno-vascular adverse events. Moreover, the possible association with other prominent risk factors, such as hypercholesterolemia, smoking and diabetes, brings about a further significant increase in probability. Therefore, the therapeutic choice must be based on individual global cardiovascular risk calculation, taking into account age, gender, past occurrence of cardiovascular events and presence of other associated risk factors.
Iperten (Manidipine chlorohydrate), a long-lasting calcium-channel blocker, is indicated for the treatment of mild-to-moderate hypertensive patients. Its vasodilatory activity is capable of reducing both systolic and diastolic blood pressure, by means of a once-daily posology.
Vivace is the fixed combination of two antihypertensive agents, manidipine (a calcium-channel blocker) and delapril (an ACE-inhibitor), whose mechanism of action is to inhibit the formation of Angiotensin II, one of the strongest vasoconstrictor mediators. Its indication is the treatment of essential hypertension in patients not adequately controlled with manidipine or delapril monotherapy, with a once-daily posology.